no. 1.615

Feed Composition for Cattle and Sheep

by T.L. Stanton and S.B. LeValley1 (6/2010)

Quick Facts...

  • Obtain and use actual feedstuff analysis whenever possible for ration formulation.
  • If feedstuff compositional data is impossible to determine, tabulated data is the next best source of information.
  • Since moisture content of feeds can vary greatly, it is important to express feedstuff composition on a dry matter basis.

Nutrition research spanning more than 100 years has defined the nutrients required by animals. Using this information, rations can be formulated from feeds and ingredients to meet these requirements. Animals fed these rations should not only remain healthy but be productive and efficient.

The ultimate goal of feed analysis is to predict the productive response of animals when they are fed rations of a given composition. this is the real reason for information on feedstuff composition.

Table Values for Feedstuff Composition

Feedstuffs vary in composition. Unlike chemicals that are "chemically pure" and therefore have a constant composition, feeds vary in their composition for many reasons. Actual analysis of a feed to be used in a ration is more accurate than tabular data. Obtain and use actual analysis whenever possible.

Often, however, it is either impossible to determine actual compositional data, or there is insufficient time to obtain an analysis. Tabulated data are the next best source of information. When using tabulated data, remember that feeds vary in their composition. the organic constituents (e.g., crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber) can vary as much as 15 percent, the mineral constituents as much as 30 percent, and the energy values at least 10 percent, from table values.

Therefore, the values shown can only be guides. For this reason they are called "typical values." they are not averages of published information. Some judgment was used in arriving at some of the values in the hope that the values will be realistic for use in cattle and sheep rations.

Feeds can be chemically analyzed for many things that may or may not be related to the response of the animals to which they are fed. In the accompanying table, certain chemical constituents are shown. the response of cattle and sheep when fed a feed, however, can be termed the biological response to the feed in question. this is a function of its chemical composition and the ability of the animal to derive useful nutrients from the feed.

The latter relates to the digestibility or availability of a nutrient in the feed for absorption into the body and its ultimate efficiency of use in the animal. this also depends on the nutrient status of the animal and the productive or physiological function being performed by the animal. Ground fence posts and shelled corn may have the same gross energy value in a bomb calorimeter, but have markedly different useful energy value (TDN, digestible energy, net energy) when consumed by the animal.

That means that the biological attributes of a feed have much greater meaning in predicting the productive response of animals. However, they are more difficult to accurately determine because there is an interaction between the chemical composition of the feed and the digestive and metabolic capabilities of the animal being fed.

Using Information Contained in the Table

Feed Names

The most obvious or commonly used feed names are given in the table. Feeds designated as "fresh" are feeds that are grazed or fed as fresh cut materials.

Dry Matter

Typical dry matter (DM) values are shown. However, the moisture content of feeds can vary greatly. thus DM content can be the biggest reason for variation in the composition of feedstuffs on an "as fed basis." For this reason, the composition of chemical constituents and biological attributes of feeds are shown on a DM basis. Because DM can vary greatly, and because one of the factors regulating total feed intake is the DM content of feeds, ration formulation on a DM basis is more sound than using "as fed basis." To convert the values shown to an "as fed basis," multiply the decimal equivalent of the DM content times the compositional value shown in the table.

Protein

Crude protein (CP) values are shown for each feed. Crude protein is determined by taking the Kjeldahl nitrogen times (100/16 or 6.25). (Proteins contain 16 percent nitrogen on average.) Crude protein does not give any information on the actual protein and nonprotein content of a feed. Digestible protein has been included in many feed composition tables, but because of the large contribution of body protein to the apparent protein in the feces, digestible protein is more misleading than CP. Calculate digestible protein from the CP content of the ration fed to cattle or sheep by the following equation: % DP = 0.9 (% CP) - 3, where % DP and % CP are the ration values on a dry matter basis.

Rumen "by-pass" protein, or undegraded intake protein (UIP), represents the percent of protein that passes through the rumen without being degraded by rumen microorganisms. Like other biological attributes, these values are not constant. By-pass values for many feeds have not been determined. Reasonable estimates are difficult to make.

Degradable intake protein (DIP) is used to meet the nitrogen requirements of rumen micro-organisms. Nitrogen sources such as urea are the most economical sources of DIP. Balancing DIP and UIP sources provides a more accurate way of meeting the metabolizable protein needs of ruminants.

Crude, Acid Detergent and Neutral Detergent Fibers

After more than 100 years, crude fiber (CF) is declining in popularity as a measure of low digestible material in feeds. the major problem with CF is that variable amounts of lignin, which is not digestible, are removed from various feeds in the CF procedure. In the old scheme, the material removed was called nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and was thought to be more digestible than CF, even though many feeds have been shown to have a higher digestibility for CF than NFE. One reason CF remained in the analytical scheme for feedstuff analysis was its requirement for the determination of TDN.

Newer procedures have developed an alternate analytical scheme, namely, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). ADF is highly related to digestibility in the animal. NDF is related to voluntary intake of the feed and the availability of net energy from digestible energy. Both measures relate more directly to predicted animal performance, so they are more valuable than CF. Also, if TDN is replaced by other measures of energy value, there will be little use of the CF content of feeds. As more complete data on the ADF and NDF content of feeds are developed, CF will be dropped.

Minerals

Values are shown for only certain minerals. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are important minerals in most feeding situations. Potassium (K) becomes important as the level of concentrate increases in the ration, or when nonprotein nitrogen is substituted for intact protein. Sulfur (S) also becomes more important as the level of nonprotein nitrogen increases in the ration.

Vitamins

Vitamins have been omitted from the table. Only vitamin A is of general practical importance in cattle and sheep feeding. the vitamin A and carotene in feeds depend largely on maturity and conditions at harvest and the length and conditions of storage. therefore, it is probably unwise to rely entirely on harvested feeds as a source of vitamin A. Where roughages are being fed that contain good green color or are being fed as immature fresh forages (e.g., pasture), there will probably be sufficient vitamin A.

Energy

Four measures of the energy value of feeds are shown in the table. TDN is shown simply because there are more TDN values for feeds, and because this has become a standard system for expressing the energy value of feeds for cattle and sheep. there are several technical problems with TDN, however. there is a poor relationship between crude fiber and NFE digestibility in certain feeds. TDN also overestimates the value of roughages compared to concentrates in producing animals. Some have argued that energy is not measured in pounds or percent, so TDN is not a valid measure of energy. However, this is more a scientific argument than a criticism of the predictive value of TDN.

Digestible energy (DE) values also are shown. Many studies have shown there is a constant relationship between TDN and DE: there are 2 Mcals of DE per pound of TDN. Obviously, DE can be calculated by multiplying .02 times the percent TDN content. Because DE is measured in calories, it is technically preferred over TDN. With greater emphasis on ADF and NDF as replacements for CF and the use of the bomb calorimeter to measure DE directly, use of TDN should gradually decrease. It should be apparent, however, that the ability of TDN and DE to predict animal performance is exactly equal.

Interest in the use of net energy (NE) in evaluating feeds for cattle and sheep was renewed with the development of the California net energy system. the main reason is the improved predictability of results depending on whether feed energy is being used for maintenance (NEm) or growth (NEg). the major problem in using these NE values is predicting feed intake and, therefore, the proportion of feed that will be used for maintenance and growth.

Some use only the NEg values in formulating rations. this suffers the equal but opposite criticism mentioned for TDN -- NEg overestimates the feeding value of concentrates relative to roughages. Others use the average of the two NE values, but this would be true only for cattle or sheep eating twice their maintenance requirement.

The most accurate way to use these NE values to formulate rations is to use the NEm value plus a multiplier times the NEg value, all divided by one plus the multiplier. the multiplier is the level of feed intake above maintenance relative to maintenance. For example, if 700-pound cattle are expected to eat 18 pounds of feed, 8 pounds of which are required for maintenance, then the NE value of the ration would be: NE = [NEg + (10/8) (NEg)] / [i + (10/8)]

There is no question as to the theoretical superiority of NE over either DE or TDN in predicting animal performance. this superiority is lost, however, if only NEg is used in formulating rations. So if NE is used, some combination of NEm and NEg is required.

Table 1: Typical composition of feeds for cattle and sheep. (All values except dry matter are shown on a dry matter basis.)
Feedstuff DM
%
CP
%
By-
Pass
%
EE
%
CF
%
ADF
%
NDF
%
Ash
%
Ca
%
P
%
K
%
S
%
Zn
PPM
TDN
%
DE
Mcal/
lb.
NEm
Mcal/
lb.
NEg
Mcal/
lb.
Alfalfa cubes 91 18 35 2.0 29 34 45 11 1.3 0.23 1.9 0.35 18 57 1.14 0.56 0.25
Alfalfa dehydrated 17% 92 19 60 3.0 26 35 45 11 1.4 0.25 2.7 0.24 19 61 1.22 0.61 0.31
Alfalfa fresh 26 19 20 2.2 27 32 44 8 1.6 0.32 2.3 0.34 21 60 1.20 0.59 0.30
Alfalfa hay early bloom 90 18 20 2.2 29 35 47 8 1.4 0.25 2.3 0.30 18 60 1.20 0.59 0.30
Alfalfa hay midbloom 89 17 25 2.0 30 38 50 10 1.4 0.23 1.8 0.30 17 58 1.16 0.57 0.26
Alfalfa hay full bloom 88 16 30 1.8 34 41 56 8 1.3 0.20 1.7 0.29 17 53 1.06 0.52 0.18
Alfalfa hay mature 90 14 35 1.7 38 45 59 8 1.3 0.19 1.4 0.25 17 50 1.00 0.49 0.12
Alfalfa silage 30 18 20 3.0 30 35 46 8 1.5 0.28 2.4 0.30 17 54 1.08 0.53 0.20
Alfalfa silage wilted 36 17 25 3.0 30 35 46 8 1.5 0.28 2.4 0.30 17 58 1.16 0.57 0.26
Ammonium sulfate 99 132 0 0.0 0 0 0 -- -- -- -- 24.20 -- 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Barley silage 32 10 25 4.0 34 -- -- 10 0.3 0.30 1.6 0.17 29 50 1.00 0.49 0.12
Barley silage mature 40 9 35 4.0 34 -- -- 10 0.2 0.15 1.5 0.15 -- 60 1.20 0.59 0.30
Barley straw 88 4 -- 1.9 42 57 82 7 0.3 0.05 2.0 0.15 7 49 0.98 0.48 0.11
Barley grain 89 12 30 2.0 6 7 20 3 0.1 0.42 0.5 0.16 25 83 1.66 0.89 0.60
Barley feed pearl byproduct 90 15 -- 3.9 11 -- -- 5 0.0 0.45 0.7 0.06 -- 75 1.50 0.78 0.50
Barley grain screenings 89 13 -- 2.6 9 -- -- 4 0.0 0.40 0.1 0.15 -- 81 1.62 0.87 0.58
Beans navy cull 90 24 -- 1.4 5 -- -- 6 0.1 0.05 1.4 0.26 -- 84 1.68 0.91 0.61
Beet pulp wet 11 10 30 2.0 20 34 59 5 0.8 0.10 0.2 0.22 1 68 1.36 0.69 0.41
Beet pulp dried 91 9 35 0.8 21 34 59 5 0.7 0.08 0.2 0.22 1 72 1.44 0.74 0.47
Beet pulp wet with molasses 24 12 25 0.5 16 27 47 9 0.6 0.10 1.8 0.36 11 76 1.52 0.80 0.52
Beet pulp dried with molasses 92 12 25 0.5 16 27 47 9 0.6 0.10 1.8 0.36 11 76 1.52 0.80 0.52
Beet tops (sugar) 20 13 -- 1.4 9 -- -- 25 0.7 0.24 4.8 0.45 20 58 1.16 0.57 0.26
Beet top silage 25 10 -- 2.0 10 -- -- 38 1.2 0.22 5.7 0.57 -- 52 1.04 0.51 0.16
Blood meal 92 80 80 1.3 1 -- -- 5 0.3 0.26 0.1 0.43 5 61 1.22 0.61 0.31
Bluestem fresh mature 61 6 -- 2.5 34 -- -- 4 0.3 0.14 1.0 0.05 28 50 1.00 0.49 0.12
Bone meal steamed 95 13 -- 11.6 1 0 0 77 27.0 12.74 0.2 2.50 290 16 0.32 0.26 0.00
Brewers grains wet 24 26 60 6.5 15 22 42 5 0.3 0.60 0.1 0.32 50 81 1.62 0.87 0.58
Brewers dried grain 92 28 60 7.5 15 22 42 4 0.3 0.60 0.1 0.32 50 81 1.62 0.87 0.58
Brewers yeast dried 94 48 -- 1.0 3 -- -- 7 0.1 1.56 1.8 0.41 41 79 1.58 0.84 0.55
Brome grass fresh immature 32 15 -- 4.1 28 33 54 10 0.4 0.39 2.7 0.20 -- 64 1.28 0.64 0.36
Brome grass hay 89 10 -- 2.5 35 41 69 9 0.5 0.23 2.5 0.16 17 55 1.10 0.54 0.21
Calcium carbonate 99 0 -- 0.0 0 0 0 99 39.0 0.04 0.0 0.09 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Canarygrass hay 91 9 -- 2.7 33 36 64 8 0.4 0.25 2.6 0.14 18 53 1.06 0.52 0.18
Carrot pulp 14 6 -- 7.8 19 23 -- 9 -- -- -- -- -- 62 1.24 0.62 0.33
Carrot root fresh 12 10 -- 1.4 10 9 9 9 0.4 0.34 2.7 0.17 -- 83 1.66 0.89 0.60
Carrot tops 16 13 -- 3.8 18 23 -- 15 1.9 0.19 1.9 -- -- 73 1.46 0.76 0.48
Cattle manure dried 92 17 -- 2.6 34 37 55 14 1.2 1.00 0.5 1.78 240 38 0.76 0.39 0.00
Cheatgrass fresh immature 21 16 -- 2.7 23 -- -- 10 0.6 0.28 -- -- -- 68 1.36 0.69 0.41
Clover ladino fresh 19 25 -- 4.8 14 -- -- 11 1.3 0.42 2.2 0.20 39 69 1.38 0.70 0.43
Clover ladino hay 90 21 -- 2.0 22 32 36 9 1.7 0.32 2.4 0.22 17 61 1.22 0.61 0.31
Clover red fresh 24 18 -- 4.0 24 33 44 9 1.7 0.26 2.0 0.17 23 64 1.28 0.64 0.36
Clover red hay 88 15 -- 2.9 30 41 56 8 1.4 0.22 1.9 0.17 17 57 1.14 0.56 0.25
Coffee grounds 88 13 -- 15.0 41 68 77 2 0.1 0.08 -- -- -- 20 0.40 0.35 0.00
Corn whole plant pelleted 91 9 45 2.4 21 -- -- 6 0.5 0.24 1.0 0.14 -- 63 1.26 0.63 0.34
Corn fodder 80 9 45 2.4 25 29 48 7 0.3 0.18 1.0 0.14 -- 67 1.24 0.68 0.40
Corn stover mature 80 6 -- 1.3 35 40 70 7 0.5 0.09 1.6 0.17 -- 59 1.18 0.58 0.28
Corn silage milk stage 26 8 25 2.8 26 31 -- 6 0.3 0.24 1.6 0.12 25 67 1.24 0.68 0.40
Corn silage mature well eared 36 8 40 2.7 23 28 50 7 0.3 0.20 1.0 0.10 24 69 1.38 0.70 0.43
Corn grain dent yellow 89 10 50 4.1 3 3 10 2 0.0 0.30 0.4 0.10 17 89 1.78 0.98 0.67
Corn grain hi-lysine 92 12 -- 4.4 4 -- -- 2 0.0 0.24 0.3 0.11 -- 89 1.78 0.98 0.67
Corn and cob meal 87 9 50 3.7 9 10 28 2 0.1 0.24 0.5 0.18 10 82 1.64 0.88 0.59
Corn cobs 90 3 50 0.5 36 39 88 2 0.1 0.04 0.8 0.35 5 48 0.26 0.47 0.09
Corn bran 90 10 -- 6.3 10 -- 51 3 0.0 0.17 0.7 0.08 -- 76 1.52 0.80 0.52
Corn gluten feed 90 26 -- 2.9 9 -- 41 7 0.4 0.75 0.6 0.20 100 82 1.64 0.88 0.59
Corn gluten meal 91 45 65 2.5 5 9 37 4 0.2 0.50 0.2 0.60 45 84 1.68 0.91 0.61
Defluorinated phosphate 99 0 -- 0.0 0 0 0 95 32.6 18.07 1.0 -- 100 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Diammonium phosphate 98 115 0 0.0 0 0 0 35 0.5 20.41 0.0 2.16 -- 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Dicalcium phosphate 96 0 -- 0.0 0 0 0 94 22.0 18.65 0.1 1.10 70 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Distillers grain barley 90 30 60 3.7 18 -- -- 4 0.1 0.27 -- -- -- 75 1.50 0.78 0.50
Distillers grain corn 91 30 65 8.2 14 16 41 2 0.1 0.45 0.2 0.46 35 84 1.68 0.91 0.61
Distillers grain corn with solubles 92 29 50 10.0 10 18 44 5 0.3 0.85 0.7 0.32 90 88 1.76 0.97 0.65
Distillers silage corn 7 29 65 8.0 8 -- -- 4 0.1 0.65 -- -- -- 86 1.72 0.94 0.63
Distillers dried solubles 93 30 -- 9.5 4 7 23 8 0.4 1.40 1.8 0.40 91 88 1.76 0.97 0.65
Fat animal poultry 99 0 -- 99.0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.00 0.0 -- -- 195 3.90 2.38 1.82
Feathermeal hydrolized 94 91 50 3.3 2 20 20 4 0.2 0.78 0.3 1.80 53 68 1.36 0.69 0.41
Garbage municipal cooked 23 16 -- 23.3 8 50 59 11 1.6 0.45 -- -- -- 75 1.50 0.78 0.50
Grain screenings 90 14 -- 5.5 14 -- -- 9 0.5 0.43 -- -- 17 65 1.30 0.65 0.37
Grain dust 92 10 -- 2.5 15 -- -- 10 0.3 0.18 -- -- 42 73 1.46 0.76 0.48
Grape pomace stemless 91 12 -- 7.5 32 50 53 9 0.6 0.06 0.6 -- 24 30 0.60 0.37 0.00
Grass silage 26 12 20 4.6 34 38 66 9 0.8 0.22 2.0 -- 29 61 1.22 0.61 0.31
Hominy feed 90 12 -- 7.7 6 12 50 3 0.1 0.58 0.7 0.04 3 94 1.88 1.05 0.72
Hop leaves 37 15 -- 3.6 15 -- -- 35 2.8 0.64 -- -- -- 49 0.98 0.48 0.11
Hop vine silage 30 15 -- 3.1 21 -- -- 20 3.3 0.37 1.8 0.22 44 53 1.06 0.52 0.18
Hops spent 89 22 -- 4.0 28 0 -- 7 1.6 0.60 -- -- -- 39 0.78 0.40 0.00
Limestone ground 98 0 -- 0.0 0 -- -- 98 38.0 0.02 -- -- -- 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Linseed meal solvent 91 39 40 1.9 10 18 25 6 0.4 1.00 1.4 0.47 60 76 1.52 0.80 0.52
Meadow hay 92 8 -- 2.5 33 -- -- 9 0.6 0.17 1.6 -- -- 46 0.92 0.45 0.05
Meat meal 94 55 65 9.7 3 -- -- 29 9.4 4.74 0.6 0.50 85 71 1.42 0.73 0.46
Milo grain 89 11 60 3.2 3 6 20 2 0.0 0.32 0.4 0.13 17 85 1.70 0.92 0.62
Mint slug silage 27 14 -- 1.8 24 -- -- 16 1.1 0.57 -- -- -- 55 1.10 0.54 0.21
Molasses beet 77 9 0 0.2 0 0 0 11 0.2 0.03 6.1 0.60 18 79 1.58 0.84 0.55
Molasses cane 76 5 0 0.0 0 0 0 10 1.1 0.08 3.6 0.46 30 75 1.50 0.78 0.50
Molasses cane dried 94 10 0 0.6 3 0 0 14 1.2 0.15 4.0 0.46 30 74 1.48 0.77 0.49
Molasses citrus 65 9 0 0.3 0 0 0 9 2.0 0.25 0.2 0.23 137 75 1.50 0.78 0.50
Molasses wood (Hemicellulose) 61 1 0 0.7 1 -- -- 8 1.4 0.06 0.1 0.05 -- 76 1.52 0.80 0.52
Monoammonium phosphate 98 74 0 0.0 0 0 0 24 0.3 24.70 0.0 1.42 81 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mono-dicalcium phosphate 97 0 -- 0.0 0 0 0 94 16.7 21.10 0.1 -- 70 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Oat hay 87 9 -- 2.1 30 38 63 9 0.2 0.22 1.0 0.30 39 59 1.18 0.58 0.28
Oat silage 34 11 25 3.8 30 -- -- 10 0.4 0.25 3.4 0.32 35 60 1.20 0.59 0.30
Oat straw 90 4 -- 2.3 41 46 70 8 0.3 0.10 2.2 0.22 6 50 1.00 0.49 0.12
Oats grain 89 13 30 4.0 12 17 31 4 0.1 0.40 0.5 0.22 30 74 1.48 0.77 0.49
Oats groats 91 18 25 5.5 3 -- -- 2 0.1 0.47 0.4 0.22 -- 93 1.86 1.03 0.71
Oat meal feeding 90 17 20 6.0 4 -- -- 3 0.1 0.46 0.5 0.25 -- 94 1.88 1.05 0.72
Oat mill byproduct 89 9 -- 3.0 21 -- -- 6 0.1 0.24 0.6 0.24 -- 33 0.66 0.37 0.00
Oat hulls 93 4 -- 1.5 32 44 78 7 0.2 0.15 0.6 0.15 -- 37 0.74 0.39 0.00
Orange pulp dried 89 9 -- 1.8 9 -- -- 4 0.7 0.11 -- -- -- 82 1.64 0.88 0.59
Orchardgrass fresh immature 24 18 25 5.0 24 29 50 11 0.4 0.40 2.7 0.22 20 65 1.30 0.65 0.37
Orchardgrass hay 88 11 30 3.3 34 40 70 7 0.3 0.28 2.8 0.26 18 59 1.18 0.58 0.28
Pea vine hay 89 10 -- 1.8 32 -- -- 7 1.2 0.21 1.8 0.17 15 60 1.20 0.59 0.30
Pea vine silage 24 13 -- 3.3 31 49 59 8 1.3 0.24 1.4 0.29 -- 57 1.14 0.56 0.25
Pea straw 89 7 -- 1.3 45 -- -- 7 -- 0.11 1.1 0.20 -- 50 1.00 0.49 0.12
Peas cull 89 25 -- 1.5 8 -- -- 5 0.2 0.43 1.1 0.26 30 82 1.64 0.88 0.59
Peanut hulls 92 7 -- 1.3 63 65 74 5 0.2 0.07 0.9 -- -- 22 0.44 0.35 0.00
Peanut meal solvent 91 52 30 1.3 11 -- 14 5 0.2 0.65 1.2 0.30 22 77 1.54 0.81 0.53
Peanut skins 92 17 -- 22.0 13 20 28 3 -- -- -- -- -- 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Potato vine silage 15 15 -- 3.7 26 -- -- 19 2.1 0.29 4.0 0.37 -- 59 1.18 0.58 0.28
Potatoes cull 21 10 0 0.4 2 -- -- 5 0.0 0.24 2.2 0.09 -- 80 1.60 0.85 0.56
Potato waste wet 14 7 0 1.5 9 -- -- 3 0.2 0.26 1.3 0.11 12 82 1.64 0.88 0.59
Potato waste dried 89 8 0 0.5 7 -- -- 5 0.1 0.13 1.2 -- -- 85 1.70 0.92 0.62
Potato waste wet with lime 17 5 0 0.3 10 -- -- 9 4.2 0.18 -- -- -- 80 1.60 0.85 0.56
Potato waste filter cake 14 5 0 7.7 2 -- -- 3 0.1 0.19 0.2 -- -- 77 1.54 0.81 0.53
Poultry litter dried 87 26 0 3.0 18 -- -- 19 2.7 1.80 1.7 1.26 340 64 1.28 0.64 0.36
Poultry manure dried 89 28 0 2.1 13 15 35 29 9.0 2.44 2.0 0.18 445 54 1.08 0.53 0.20
Prairie hay 91 7 -- 2.0 35 -- -- 8 0.4 0.13 1.1 0.06 34 50 1.00 0.49 0.12
Rapemeal solvent 91 41 20 2.2 14 -- -- 8 0.7 1.14 1.4 0.28 66 70 1.40 0.72 0.44
Rye straw 89 4 -- 1.5 44 55 71 6 0.3 0.10 1.0 0.11 -- 44 0.88 0.43 0.01
Rye grain 89 13 -- 1.7 2 -- -- 2 0.1 0.38 0.5 0.17 34 81 1.62 0.87 0.58
Safflower meal solubles 91 22 -- 1.0 33 41 59 6 0.3 0.73 1.0 0.28 44 55 1.10 0.54 0.21
Safflower meal dehulled solubles 91 48 -- 0.6 9 -- -- 7 0.3 1.83 1.3 0.22 36 76 1.52 0.80 0.52
Sagebrush fresh 50 13 -- 9.2 25 28 36 10 1.0 0.25 -- 0.22 -- 50 1.00 0.49 0.12
NA tripolyphos 96 0 -- 0.0 0 0 0 96 0.0 25.98 0.0 0.00 -- 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Sorghum stover 85 5 -- 2.1 33 -- -- 10 0.4 0.11 1.2 -- -- 54 1.08 0.53 0.20
Sorghum silage 28 8 50 2.8 26 28 39 7 0.3 0.15 1.6 0.09 24 58 1.16 0.57 0.26
Soybean hay 89 15 -- 2.2 37 -- -- 8 1.3 0.32 1.0 0.24 24 52 1.04 0.51 0.16
Soybean straw 88 5 -- 1.4 44 54 70 6 1.6 0.06 0.6 0.26 -- 42 0.84 0.42 0.00
Soybeans whole 91 42 40 19.2 6 10 -- 5 0.3 0.63 1.8 0.24 60 92 1.84 1.02 0.70
Soybean meal solvent 44% protein 89 50 35 1.3 6 10 14 7 0.3 0.75 2.2 0.40 52 84 1.68 0.91 0.61
Soybean meal solvent 49% protein 90 55 25 1.2 3 6 10 6 0.3 0.71 2.2 0.42 61 87 1.74 0.95 0.64
Soybean flake (hull) 91 12 10 2.8 39 47 65 4 0.6 0.17 1.0 0.09 24 71 1.42 0.73 0.46
Sudangrass fresh immature 18 17 -- 3.9 23 29 55 9 0.5 0.31 2.0 0.04 -- 70 1.40 0.72 0.44
Sudangrass hay 89 9 -- 1.8 36 43 68 10 0.4 0.30 2.1 0.06 30 57 1.14 0.56 0.25
Sudangrass silage 23 10 -- 3.1 34 42 65 10 0.4 0.25 3.5 0.05 -- 55 1.10 0.54 0.21
Sunflower meal solvent 93 50 -- 3.1 12 -- 40 8 0.5 0.80 1.1 0.33 21 65 1.30 0.65 0.37
Sunflower meal with hulls 91 32 -- 1.4 27 -- -- 7 0.4 0.96 1.1 0.30 100 57 1.14 0.56 0.25
Sunflower hulls 90 5 -- 2.2 25 63 -- 3 0.0 0.11 -- -- -- 40 0.80 0.41 0.00
Timothy fresh pre-bloom 26 11 20 3.8 32 37 64 7 0.4 0.28 2.1 0.21 24 64 1.28 0.64 0.36
Timothy hay early bloom 88 12 25 2.6 33 43 68 6 0.5 0.25 0.9 0.21 -- 59 1.18 0.58 0.28
Timothy hay full bloom 88 8 35 2.5 34 45 70 5 0.4 0.20 1.6 0.13 17 57 1.14 0.56 0.25
Timothy silage 34 10 25 3.4 35 -- -- 7 0.6 0.29 1.7 0.15 -- 59 1.18 0.58 0.28
Tomato pomace dried 92 23 -- 10.6 26 50 55 6 0.4 0.59 3.6 -- -- 64 1.28 0.64 0.36
Triticale silage 38 12 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Triticale 90 16 25 4.6 4 -- -- 2 0.1 0.34 0.4 0.17 -- 86 1.72 0.94 0.63
Urea 46% N 99 288 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.00 0.0 0.00 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Wheat fresh pasture 21 28 -- 4.0 18 30 52 14 0.4 0.40 3.3 0.22 -- 69 1.38 0.70 0.43
Wheat silage 28 10 -- 3.2 28 -- -- 8 0.3 0.27 1.2 0.23 25 60 1.20 0.59 0.30
Wheat straw 88 4 -- 1.5 42 56 85 7 0.2 0.08 1.2 0.14 7 44 0.88 0.43 0.01
Wheat grain 89 13 25 2.1 3 4 13 2 0.0 0.35 0.4 0.17 17 89 1.78 0.98 0.67
Wheat grain hard 89 14 -- 2.0 3 6 -- 2 0.1 0.45 0.5 0.17 16 89 1.78 0.98 0.67
Wheat grain soft 89 12 -- 2.0 3 4 14 2 0.1 0.35 0.4 0.17 16 89 1.78 0.98 0.67
Wheat bran 89 18 -- 4.8 11 14 47 7 0.1 1.30 1.4 0.25 105 70 1.40 0.72 0.44
Wheat midds 88 18 50 3.9 3 -- 37 3 0.1 0.90 1.1 0.20 72 90 1.80 0.99 0.68
Wheat mill run 90 17 20 4.7 9 -- -- 6 0.1 1.10 1.4 0.28 -- 75 1.50 0.78 0.50
Wheat shorts 89 20 20 5.4 7 -- -- 5 0.1 0.99 1.1 0.19 118 80 1.60 0.85 0.56
Wheatgrass crested fresh early bloom 37 11 -- 1.6 26 -- -- 7 0.3 0.30 -- -- -- 60 1.20 0.59 0.30
Wheatgrass crested fresh full bloom 50 10 -- 1.6 33 -- -- 7 0.4 0.28 -- -- -- 55 1.10 0.54 0.21
Wheatgrass crested hay 92 11 -- 2.4 33 36 -- 7 O.3 0.15 2.0 -- 32 54 1.08 0.53 0.20
Wheat dried 96 16 0 0.9 0 0 0 10 1.0 0.81 1.5 1.10 3 82 1.64 0.88 0.59

1T.L. Stanton, former Colorado State University Extension feedlot specialist and professor, animal sciences. Reviewed by S.B. LeValley, Extension sheep/youth specialist and assistant professor, animal sciences department. 10/99. Reviewed 6/2010.

Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Colorado counties cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination. No endorsement of products mentioned is intended nor is criticism implied of products not mentioned.

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Updated Tuesday, July 22, 2014

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